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(1908-1991) American physicist. He is the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice.
Year of Birth: 1908
John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer who was born on May 23, 1908, in Madison, Wisconsin. He is best known for his significant contribution to the invention of the transistor and, later, the development of the theory of superconductivity.
Bardeen completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1928. He then earned his Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Princeton University in 1936. After completing his doctorate, Bardeen joined the faculty at the University of Minnesota, where he began to focus his research on solid-state physics.
It was during his time at Bell Laboratories in 1947 that Bardeen, along with William Shockley and Walter Brattain, invented the transistor. This groundbreaking discovery revolutionized the field of electronics and made possible the development of smaller, more efficient electronic devices.
In 1956, Bardeen moved to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he continued his research on superconductivity. He, along with his colleagues Robert Schrieffer and Leon Cooper, developed the BCS theory, which explained how electrons can move through a material without resistance at extremely low temperatures.
John Bardeen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice in his lifetime. He first received the honor in 1956 for his part in the invention of the transistor and then again in 1972 for the development of the theory of superconductivity. He remains the only person to have received two Nobel Prizes in Physics.
Bardeen's contributions to the field of physics and electronics have had a lasting impact on technology and scientific research. He passed away on January 30, 1991, but his legacy continues to inspire future generations of scientists and engineers.
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